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Brazilian Policy Responses To Violence Against Women

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Our results agree with these of Kitamura et al. who advised that being pregnant is a time of higher susceptibility to socioenvironmental distress than postpartum. Acceptance of the being pregnant by the companion was the issue with the strongest affect during being pregnant. In our sample, even when only women with a whole observe-up had been thought-about for evaluation , the proportion of volunteers with out companion help was nonetheless considerably larger amongst depressed women compared to not depressed women. Kitamura et al. reported that, compared to women with no onset of affective disorders, depressive women had been characterized as having acquired a negative response from the husband to news of the pregnancy. This finding, in a Japanese pattern, could be very similar to our leads to Brazilian women.

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There is affordable evidence that postnatal despair is related to stress exacerbated by lack of social help . An affiliation between a lack of social help and an absence of earlier expertise with motherhood may be alleged to exist. In conclusion, this study signifies that the prenatal period could also be extra vulnerable to some socioenvironmental elements that result in despair, and suggests a excessive incidence of despair amongst Brazilian women already suffering the implications of poverty. Further investigation of this drawback is necessary earlier than basic conclusions can be reached about such despair in other elements of Brazil.

The G-formula offers larger flexibility than conventional mediation methods, including modelling non-linearities and allowing for mediator-outcome confounding and publicity-mediator interaction. The sum of the NDE and NIE represents the entire effect, and the quotient of the NIE divided by the whole impact represents the proportion of the impact defined by the mediator. On the other hand, the CDE represents the direct impact of publicity on the outcome if the mediator is controlled .

Our examine means that gentle depression within the third trimester of pregnancy doesn’t have an effect on breast feeding considerably. However, studies of more extreme circumstances and involving the remark of mother-infant relationships will surely improve our understanding of this subject. On the first visit, information had been collected on the earlier obstetric history, psychiatric and clinical antecedents, acceptance of present being pregnant, living conditions, companion and family assist and social misery such as unemployment. Partner assist was defined as positive acceptance of the current pregnancy even when there was no financial help or cohabitation.

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In our case we investigated what would happen if nobody was uncovered to violence, regardless of gender. We created and examined two different fashions, one for MDE and one for suicidal ideation, adjusting for age, race, training and WIQ . Women in Brazil have an increased risk of major depressive episode and suicidal ideation, and this association is mediated, partly, by the truth that they endure more violence from relations or acquaintances. We aimed to research the mediating effect of violence by a member of the family or acquaintance on organic sex, despair and suicidal ideation. Our pattern was too small to lead to conclusive outcomes concerning the significance of previous psychiatric treatment within the onset of prenatal melancholy.

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Kitamura et al. reported excessive scores on the neuroticism and psychoticism subscales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in prenatally depressed women as in comparison with pregnant, not depressed women. The increased proportion of blacks amongst depressed volunteers (pre- or postnatal) was surprising. This result differs from different reviews within the literature , although racial variations within the incidence of “the blues” have been described. Okano instructed that this incidence was lower in Japan than in Western nations.

Mood analysis was carried out on the end of the first interview, as described beneath. The age of consent in Brazil is 14, regardless of gender or sexual orientation and any sort of sexual activity is permitted after the age of 18. Statutory rape can solely be committed by these above the age of 18, and is punishable by eight to fifteen years imprisonment. However, based on US State Department, men who’ve killed, sexually assaulted, or dedicated other crimes towards women are unlikely to be dropped at trial.

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We only studied violence from members of the family or acquaintances, which might have limited our capability to determine which sort of violence can be more essential within the explored mediators. However, the out there information was inappropriate for answering this particular query, since the kind beautiful brazilian women of violence was self-reported and the occurrence of violence was probably underestimated. Thus, the answer to this question ought to be explored in different studies with greater specificity. To estimate the potential mediating effect of violence, we used the G-method, a parametric computation that uses Monte Carlo simulations.

Our research demonstrated an association between postnatal depression and parity. The prevalence of postnatal depression in our research was comparable to these reported in the obtainable literature. Although this prevalence was not larger than in different reports for various social lessons in other countries, it’s attainable that low revenue Brazilian primiparae are more likely to develop despair in response to the specific stress of delivery.

It can be interesting to research whether or not acceptance of pregnancy by the partner has the same grade of significance for ladies with larger ranges of education and financial support. In the examine by Kitamura et al. different elements such as living in a crowded flat had been also necessary within the onset of prenatal despair. It is possible that poverty and the dearth of psychological support work together synergistically to influence the incidence of prenatal melancholy. Prenatal depression, as remarked by Kitamura et al. , has been an extended-neglected area, warranting additional investigation. To our data, the results of prenatal melancholy by way of the success of breast feeding have not been systematically investigated.

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List of newly elected MCAs in Nakuru County

The following are the Nakuru County elected MCAs following the 9th August General elections. The United Democratic Alliance party (UDA) got the most number of seats at 39

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The new County Asssembly of Nakuru chambers

The following are the Nakuru County elected MCAs following the 9th August General elections. The United Democratic Alliance party (UDA) got the most number of seats at 39. The Jubilee party managed 6 seats, while the Safina party won 1 seat. Seven of the MCAs were elected as independent candidates. Out of the 55 elected MCAs, 8 are women.

Naivasha Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. Maiella – Gituku Jane Wanjiru (UDA)
  2. 2. Naivasha East – Stanley Karanja (UDA)
  3. 3. Maai Mahiu – Eliud Kamau Chege (UDA)
  4. 4. Biashara – Elijah Mwaura (UDA)
  5. 5. Viwandani – Mwangi Muraya (UDA)
  6. 6. Lakeview – Alex Mbugua (UDA)
  7. 7. Hellsgate – Virginia Gichanga (Jubilee)
  8. 8. Ol’Karia – Peter Wanjala Palang’a (ODM)

Gilgil Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 9. Gilgil – Rose Njoroge (UDA)
  2. 10. Malewa – Francis Mungai Kuria (UDA)
  3. 11. Eburru Baruk – Michael Gathanwa (UDA)
  4. 12. Elementaita – George Nene (Safina)
  5. 13. Morendat – Peter Njoroge (UDA)

Subukia Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 14. Subukia – Isabella Makori (UDA)
  2. 15. Waseges – Elijah Murage (Independent)
  3. 16. Kabazi – George Talam (UDA)

Bahati Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 17. Bahati – Grace Mwathi (UDA)
  2. 18. Kabatini – Leah Ng’ang’a (Independent)
  3. 19. Kiamaina – Paul Waweru Warege (Ka Wambui) (UDA)
  4. 20. Dundori – James Gathuita Mwangi (UDA)
  5. 21. Lanet Umoja -Mwangi Ngarama (UDA)

Nakuru Town East Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 22. Nakuru East – Anthony Kamau (UDA)
  2. 23. Menengai – Wilson Mwangi (Jubilee)
  3. 24. Flamingo – David Kihumba Muraya (Independent)
  4. 25. Biashara – Fadhili Msuri (UDA)
  5. 26. Kivumbini – Neto Sakwa Alukutsa (Independent)

Nakuru Town West Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 27. Rhoda – John Macharia (UDA)
  2. 28. London – Benard Gattuso (Jubilee)
  3. 29. Barut – Ben Kirui (UDA)
  4. 30. Kapkures – Robert Ruto (UDA)
  5. 31. Kaptembwa – Peter Kanjwang’ (ODM)
  6. 32. Shabaab – Macharia Wathiai (UDA)

Rongai Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 33.Solai – Nixon Morogo (Independent)
  2. 34. Soin – Ellibas Naburuki (Degualle) (UDA)
  3. 35. Mosop – Dr. Alex Lang’at (UDA)
  4. 36. Menengai West – Isaac Kiptisya Rottok (UDA)
  5. 37. Visoi – Hellen Chemutai (UDA)

Njoro Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 38. Njoro – Hezy Ndung’u (Independent)
  2. 39. Nessuit – Samuel Tonui (UDA)
  3. 40. Mauche – Moses Koros (UDA)
  4. 41. Mau Narok – Cyrus Dida (UDA)
  5. 42. Kihingo – Simon Kamau Karanja (Jubilee)
  6. 43. Lare – Phillip Wanjohi (Jubilee)

Molo Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 44. Molo – Joseph Ngware (UDA)
  2. 45. Marioshoni – Ben Lang’at (UDA)
  3. 46. Elburgon – David Njuguna (Independent)
  4. 47. Turi – John Mwangi Macharia (Jubilee)

Kuresoi South Constituency MCAs 2022

  1. 48. Keringet – William Mutai (UDA)
  2. 49. Tinet – Paul Lang’at Alvin (Drilit) (UDA)
  3. 51. Kiptangich – Rose Mutai (UDA)
  4. 52. Amalo – Robert Lang’at (UDA)

Kuresoi North Constituency UDA MCA nominees

  1. 53. Sirikwa – Emmanuel Lang’at (UDA)
  2. 54. Kamara – Joseph Kipng’etich (Chemutwet) (UDA)
  3. 55. Kiptororo – Alex Bor (Kipyek) (UDA)

 

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Nakuru to host World Bee Day celebrations

The Apimondia Regional Commission (ARC) President, Mr David Mukomana, in a statement, said the three-day program will include technical tours to see beekeeping within Nakuru County and any other areas, exhibitions, seminars and the actual celebrations.

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Bees on a honey comb

Nakuru City will this year host the Regional World Bee Day (WBD) celebrations from the 18th – to the 20th of May 2022.

The yearly event is commemorated to raise awareness about the importance of bees and other pollinators for humanity in food security, global hunger eradication, and environmental and biodiversity conservation.

Under the theme; “Bee engaged: Celebrating the contribution of bees to the environment, food security and income generation to mankind.”

The forum will share knowledge from across the world, and draw the attention of the public and decision-makers to the importance of protecting bees as well as halting the further loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems following the Paris Agreement.

FAO estimates that bees contribute to the pollination of food worth between $ 235 and $ 580 billion every year and that their decline continues to strain food systems.

Intensive farming practices, excessive use of agrochemicals, habitat loss, and adverse effects of climate among other issues have been identified as key hindrances causing the depopulation of bees and loss of colonies.

With such challenges, there is a need to come up with solutions that are resistive to the increasing bee population globally.

According to FAO, Kenya ranks third in Africa after Tanzania which is the largest producer of honey and produces approximately 31,405 tonnes annually while Angola ranks second producing about 23,500 tonnes annually.

As of 2020, Kenya’s production of honey was at 17,801 tonnes, up from 13,877 tonnes the previous year, this is a change of 28.28%.

Speaking during a past apiculture stakeholders’ workshop, State Department for Livestock Production Principal Secretary, Mr Harry Kimtai, expressed concern that new pests and farm pesticides have hit colonies hard.

“We’re collaborating with devolved units to halt the alarming depletion of bee colonies. Bee colony multiplication initiatives include capacity building, beekeeping equipment distribution, and bee bulking,” revealed PS Kimtai.

Despite the potential of honey production and the benefits of apicultural activity, very little income accrues from the activity.

The government in its progress, in the Big Four Agenda on 100% food and nutrition security, is committed to enhancing honey production from 25,000 tonnes to 38,000 tonnes by the year 2022.

Beekeeping offers an alternative source of livelihood and protects biodiversity and should ideally be established away from human interaction with enough bee forage and all-year-round availability of water to provide favourable conditions for beekeeping.

Nakuru County Executive Committee Member for Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Dr Immaculate Maina, says that, ‘’bees have become increasingly endangered with one million species facing extinction. Thus, beekeeping should be embraced as an alternative environmentally friendly income-earning enterprise.”

‘’We hope that by hosting this event, we will be able to proactively assist in the opening up of our county by giving marketing opportunities and investment prospects in the apiculture industry,” Dr Maina noted.

“We also anticipate important topics discussed during the three-day forum, such as the role of women in the sector as those most affected by climate change, solutions to save our bee species from extinction, and how we can continue to rely on pollinators to save us from the current climate crisis,” she concluded.

Acting CEO of the Apiculture Platform of Kenya (APK), Mr Frederick Otieno Odera, says that beekeeping has significant potential in Africa to improve rural incomes and diversify livelihoods.

“We hope the commemoration of the National World Bee Day will showcase new technologies and sustainable measures from across the world in the apiculture industry and provide sustainable solutions to save our bees in the current climate crisis,” said Otieno.

The Apimondia Regional Commission (ARC) President, Mr David Mukomana, in a statement, said the three-day program will include technical tours to see beekeeping within Nakuru County and any other areas, exhibitions, seminars and the actual celebrations.

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Governor Kinyanjui drops deputy, picks Kamuren as running mate

The county is a cosmopolitan city and was the headquarters of the Rift Valley province under the old Constitution.

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Nakuru Governor Lee Kinyanjui has dropped his Deputy of five years and named a woman running mate ahead of the August 2022 polls.

Kinyanjui, who is gunning for a second and final term in office, dropped Dr Eric Kipkoech in favour of Ms Franciscar Jelagat Kamuren.

He explained that Kamuren, 47, is an accomplished grassroots mobilizer with a strong passion for community development and was picked after wide consultation.

“Äfter long consultations with diverse stakeholders, I have decided to appoint Ms Franciscar Jelagat Kamuren as running mate for my second term bid,” Kinyanjui said.

The nominee holds a Masters’s degree in linguistics from Egerton University and has served in various capacities.

The governor is seeking to defend his seat via the ruling Jubilee party ticket under the Azimio la Umoja One Kenya Coalition.

He is however facing stiff competition from the United Democratic Alliance (UDA) candidate Susan Kihika, who is the current Senator for Nakuru and his appointment is seen as a tactic to woo the women vote.

His announcement comes hours after Kihika unveiled her running mate in a press conference from Nakuru.

Kihika picked David Kones as the man to deputize her after an interview that attracted half a dozen candidates.

The senator, who is a staunch supporter of Deputy President William Ruto was handed a direct ticket.

Nakuru is among the largest counties in Kenya and was recently conferred city status by President Uhuru Kenyatta, making it the fourth city in Kenya after Nairobi, Mombasa, and Kisumu.

The county is a cosmopolitan city and was the headquarters of the Rift Valley province under the old Constitution.

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